Seasonal Variation

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Seasons are the periods on the earth’s surface which are characterized by their distinguishing climate. These seasons on the earth’s surface are the result of yearly revolutions of the earth around the Sun in combination with its axial tilt creating differences in heat distribution. During summer in the northern hemisphere, the weather is at its warmest because the Sun is directly overhead at the Tropic of Cancer. Whereas during winter in the northern hemisphere it is colder because the Sun is over the tropic of Capricorn. Thus, depending on your location, the sun will hit at varying intensities depending on the time of the year and the earth’s position relative to the sun.

The four seasons are spring, summer, autumn, and winter. These four seasons follow each other in a chronological pattern regularly all throughout the year. Because of the earth’s tilt, some areas receive more sunlight, hence the seasons. In particular, in June, the Northern hemisphere is in summer since it is tilted more towards the sun, while the Southern hemisphere is in winter since it is tilted away from the sun.

The four-season year is usually experienced by areas in mid-latitudes i.e. areas near the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. Countries such as China and the Philippines don’t experience the four-season year, but instead, they experience two seasons: wet and dry. This is because the nearer you are to the equator, the less seasonal variation there is. In the polar regions, seasonal variation is also experienced since the sunlight intensity drastically differs between the summer and winter.

Cite/Link to This Article

  • "Seasonal Variation". Geography Revision. Accessed on May 15, 2021.

  • "Seasonal Variation". Geography Revision, Accessed 15 May, 2021.

  • Seasonal Variation. Geography Revision. Retrieved from