Climate pertains to the conditions in the atmosphere at a particular location over an extended period. While the weather is the atmospheric element and its variations over brief periods, the climate is the long-term aggregation of all these. The elements of climate and natural vegetation include solar radiation, temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, humidity, and precipitation.
In general, the climate is regarded as the predominant atmospheric condition in a certain area. The aptest modern definitions of climate refer to it as being made up of the total experience of weather and atmospheric conditions over several years in a specific region. Climate is not only the “average weather” experienced in an area, it includes both the normal levels of climatic elements at different times and the full range of its variability and its extremes. Climate is time-dependent, and the specific year must be noted when quoting climactic values or indexes. One year’s climate can be entirely different from another. In the same way, the climate over decades and centuries has been found to differ in smaller, yet at times significant, amounts.
World Climate Zones
A climate zone is based on the climate conditions of a certain region. This includes its season, temperature, amount of precipitation, type of precipitation, and humidity. The same major factors that determine a region’s climate also determine its climate zone. The vegetation present in a region, as well as its condition and state, is reflective of the area’s climate zone. It is possible to determine the climate zone of a specific area by observing its vegetation, regardless of if the area is experiencing unusual weather at the time. As vegetation is determined by a region’s climate, the type of vegetation that grows in a region can also be used to define its climate zone.
Generally, in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, all areas across all continents located at similar latitudes and positions belong to the same type of climate zone. A single exception to this rule is the climate zones referred to as the continental climates. These climate zones are absent in the Southern Hemisphere’s higher latitudes, as landmasses in the Southern Hemispheres are not large enough to create a continental climate.
The world’s climate zones are most commonly classified using the Koppen classification system. In this system, regions are sorted into climate zones according to temperature, precipitation, and when precipitation happens over a year. The Koppen classification system classifies the world’s climate zones into five major climate groups. Each group is assigned a capital letter from A to E and subdivided into subcategories. A few examples of the subgroups include forest (f), monsoon (m), and wet/dry types (w).
A biome consists of a specific region’s climate type and the plants and animals that inhabit it. Organisms that belong to one biome share some characteristics with other organisms living in the same or similar biomes in different parts of the world. Because the conditions of the environments they live in pose the same evolutionary advantages and challenges, these organisms have adapted in similar ways throughout millennia. One example is the variety of species of cactus found in the desert biomes of different continents. Although these cacti have grown and adapted in entirely different parts of the globe, they share some adaptations that allow them to live in harsh desert environments.
Climate zones can be understood as areas of the earth with distinct climates. These zones surround the globe in the shape of a belt or circle at the north and south poles. Climate zones are classified using different climatic parameters. They are not uniform and can also be broken up by mountains or oceans.
Solar radiation does not strike the Earth’s surface in a uniform distribution and makes contact with different parts of the globe at different angles. Sunlight hits the Earth almost perpendicularly at the equator, while areas closer to the poles receive sunlight from much lower angles. Due to the higher levels of sunlight that strikes the equator, these areas are much warmer than regions closer to the poles.
The position of the Sun relative to the Earth changes throughout the seasons, thus, changing the angle at which sunlight reaches our planet’s surface. Differences in solar radiation translate to differences in temperature, which has a significant climatic impact on the climate and seasons that an area experiences. Furthermore, these climatic conditions are also influenced by factors such as the amount of precipitation and the average air temperature.
The distinct climatic conditions regularly present in a given area allow it to be described according to the following classification.
The tropical zone lies between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, between 0-23.5 degrees latitude. In the equatorial region between the equator and the tropics, solar radiation hits the ground almost directly vertical at noontime for nearly the entire year. The tropical zone is very warm, and its high temperatures lead to increased rates of evaporation, making the air humid and high in water vapour content. As a result, dense and frequent cloud cover dampens the overall effect of solar radiation on ground temperature.
The subtropics are found between latitudes 23.5–40. This climate zone receives the highest amount of solar radiation during the summer as the Sun’s rays are nearly vertical when they strike the Earth at noon. Subtropical regions have little cloud cover and receive less moisture, increasing the effect of radiation in the area. The majority of the world’s deserts are in the subtropics. During winter, subtropical regions experience a drastic decrease in solar radiation, rendering these regions temporarily cold and moist.
The Earth’s temperate zones are located at latitudes 40–60, between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere, and the Antarctic Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere. Solar radiation reaches the temperate zones at much smaller angles, resulting in average temperatures cooler than the subtropics. Throughout the year, the length of one day changes with the seasons. Temperate regions are characterised by climate with less frequent extremes, an even distribution of precipitation in a year, and longer vegetation periods.
The Cold Zones are situated in the Earth’s polar regions between latitudes 60–90. These areas receive little heat from solar radiation, as the Sun’s rays hit them at a nearly flat angle to the ground. In comparison to other climate zones, the length of a day varies the most in this region. Days are very long during the summer, a phenomenon called polar days, while long nights dominate the winter season. The conditions for life within cold zones are harsh. It is only possible for vegetation to grow during a couple of months in a year, and often this vegetation occurs in sparse quantities.
Vegetation is a term used to generally refer to the plant life present in a region. Vegetation pertains to the ground cover provided by flora. It is also the biosphere’s most abundant biotic component.
Vegetation plays many significant roles in the biosphere. One of its most important functions is to regulate the flow of many biogeochemical cycles. Among these are the water cycle, the carbon cycle, and the nitrogen cycle. Vegetation is also crucial to energy balance both at local and global levels. The maintenance of these cycles is very important for both global vegetation patterns and climate.
Vegetation also has significant effects on the characteristics of the soil. This includes volume, chemistry, and texture. In turn, these also affect the nature of vegetation, such as productivity and structure.
In addition to this, vegetation acts as a habitat for many different species. For animal species that feed on plants, vegetation also serves as their source of energy.
It can be argued that global vegetation’s most critical function is that it produces the majority of oxygen in the atmosphere. Without the large amounts of atmospheric oxygen produced by vegetation, aerobic metabolism systems could not evolve or persist.
The human species, civilization, and development benefit greatly from vegetation. People are dependent on it for many things such as food, shelter, and medicine. Vegetation also makes important contributions to the world’s economy. Some examples include the use of fossil fuels as an energy source, as well as the production of food, wood, fuel and other materials around the world.
How Climate Affects Vegetation
The most sensitive indicator of climate in an area is vegetation. Climate is directly related to plant growth, especially regarding temperature and the amount of rainfall an area receives. Regions with warmer climates, moderate to higher temperatures, and large amounts of rainfall throughout the whole year are often abundant in trees and forests. Regions that experience less rainfall are for the most part grasslands, called prairies in North America. Many grassland regions around the world have been converted for agricultural purposes. Some may have high levels of rainfall throughout the year, yet are scarce in vegetation since there is little rain during the warm seasons optimal for growing. Regions that experience little rainfall and are scarce in vegetation are called arid regions or deserts. Areas that have a little more rainfall than deserts are called semi-arid regions. The use of semi-arid regions for agricultural purposes poses significant risks, as the loss of vegetation can lead to desertification.
Vegetation Regions According to Climate
Forests are areas where trees grow in close groups with their leaves, also known as foliage, providing shade for the ground. Forests exist wherever there are trees, whether in mountains or under the sea. A wide variety of forests exist on Earth. This includes boreal forests in cold regions near the Arctic Circle and tropical rainforests in the hot and humid areas situated on the Equator.
Grasslands are vast, level regions with grass as the prevailing kind of vegetation. All of the Earth’s continents, save for Antarctica, have grasslands. These vary according to the climate in the region where they are found.
In grasslands in cool and mild climates, such as those in northwest Europe, tough vegetation like oats grows throughout the year. A number of grasses found in these climates are considered weeds due to their hardy nature.
In temperate regions, grasslands are dominated by seasonal vegetation. Throughout the year, the grasses that make up the grassland in these climates changes with the seasons. These grasslands are found in the veld of South Africa and the prairies of North America.
Grasslands in the tropics are called savannas. This type of grassland thrives in weather that is dry and warm all year. Savannas are famously abundant in Africa.
Desert regions are characterised by little to no rainfall throughout the year. Specifically, these regions only experience precipitation at an average of fewer than 10 inches per year. In general, deserts have low humidity levels, very high temperatures during the daytime, and low temperatures at nighttime.
Vegetation in deserts has adapted specifically to these arid weather conditions. Many plants have developed long roots, small leaves, water-storing stems, and prickly spines that deter animals from touching or consuming them. Cacti, endemic to North and South America, are prime examples of desert vegetation.
Tundras are areas that have cold temperatures and short seasons. Due to these factors, tree growth is limited. Vegetation is sparse in these regions, as the ground temperature is too low for plants to take root. Commonly the vegetation consists of limited amounts of mosses, shrubs, and grasses.
Ice sheets are large expanses of glaciers that envelop the land in an area. It is land covered by glaciers amounting to more than 50,000 square kilometres. Although ice sheets are regarded as vegetation regions, in reality, no vegetation grows on ice sheets.
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