Core & Periphery Model

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The Core-Periphery model was developed in 1963 by John Friedmann and it describes spatially how economic, political, and cultural authority is spread out in core and periphery regions. The core-periphery model works on many scales, from towns and cities to a global scale. The model describes four stages of development: pre-industrial, transitional, industrial, and post-industrial.

A great example of the Core-Periphery model is Brazil with the ‘golden triangle’ at its core and the Amazon being its main peripheral area. Within cities like Sao Paulo, Belo Horizonte, and Prio de Janeiro, overheating has become a serious problem. Large amounts of people from the peripheral areas in Brazil move to the core area which causes many problems like overcrowding, lack of housing, and sometimes the formation of favelas, which is a type of low-income informal settlement.

Much like how the core areas are affected by changes in dynamics, the peripheral areas are also affected by these changes. For example, a large majority of the people who are moving into the core area are young adults. The peripheral areas are therefore losing young, potentially educated, adults.

There are reasons why the core area develops and not other areas such as the peripheral areas. Sao Paulo, for example, developed because of its coffee industry, Rio de Janeiro developed because it’s a port and because it became big with imports and exports. On the other hand, the peripheral areas haven’t developed because of the lack of accessibility to the area or lacking in resources, human and physical.

Cite/Link to This Article

  • "Core & Periphery Model". Geography Revision. Accessed on May 15, 2021.

  • "Core & Periphery Model". Geography Revision, Accessed 15 May, 2021.

  • Core & Periphery Model. Geography Revision. Retrieved from