There are seven main glacial landforms that you should know about. They include:
1. Truncated Spurs
A long time ago, glaciers will have had to move from one area to another. While they were moving, they will have cut off different areas of land. We can see evidence of this when walking through valleys. Have you ever noticed that there are cliff-like edges with exposed rock faces? These are called truncated spurs.
Corries are quite easy to spot because they look like small hollows. A lot of them have a distinctive armchair shape and most of them contain small bodies of water that we call tarns.
3. Ribbon Lakes
If you are asked to spot a ribbon lake during your exam, then you are in for an easy time. You just have to look for a lake that is elongated in appearance. When glaciers retreated, ribbon lakes were left behind.
4. Glacial Troughs
Glacial troughs are also relatively easy to spot. They look like valleys that have really steep sides, but they usually have an area of flat ground in the bottom.
5. Hanging Valleys
Hanging valleys are similar to glacial troughs, but the glaciers that formed them were smaller. They are less deep than glacial troughs and because the glaciers were smaller, they would have melted before they had the chance to reach low ground. This means that you can usually spot hanging valleys quite high.
6. Pyramidal Peaks
A pyramidal peak is something that looks like a pointed mountain peak. When back-to-back glaciers eroded a mountain, pyramidal peaks formed.
Plenty of hikers will be familiar with arêtes, but they might not be familiar with the term. An arête could easily be described as a narrow, jagged path with steep drops at either side.
As glaciers moved, they caused erosion. This erosion was caused by either plucking or abrasion. Plucking occurred because meltwater would freeze onto passing rocks. As the glacier moved, the rocks would have been pulled along too. Abrasion involved the glacier and the rocks that had been picked up wearing against the land that they travelled over.
As glaciers moved, they caused erosion. This erosion was caused by either plucking or abrasion. Plucking occurred because meltwater would freeze onto passing rocks. As the glacier moved, the rocks would have been dragged along too. Abrasion involved the glacier and the rocks that had been picked up wearing against the land that they travelled over like sandpaper.
Glaciers were capable of transporting a lot of material at once because of all of the rocks that they picked up. That material could not simply disappear. It had to end up somewhere.
Now that you know the seven distinctive glacial landforms that you should look for, you also need to know about moraines. These are made out of something called till. Till is material that is dropped by a glacier as it melts.
There are four different types of moraines:
1. Terminal Moraines
Terminal moraines are easy to recognise if you imagine them as the terminal stop of the glacier. They mark the furthest point that the glacier managed to reach.
2. Medial Moraines
Medial moraines can usually be identified as a long ridge that can be found on the floor of a valley.
3. Lateral Moraines
Lateral moraines formed at the side of a glacier. They are usually made of material that has been plucked from the walls of a valley.
4. Ground Moraines
Ground moraines are easy to spot because they are made out of the material that was dragged along the base of the glacier. This means that they usually cover quite a large area.