Storm Hazards

What is a Storm Hazard?

Storm hazards are common all around the world. They can be defined as specific weather conditions that bring about calamity upon the population. Parameters like temperature, pressure, wind speed and humidity are used to anticipate storm hazards. Scientists are researchers have been collecting data for quite a while for the sole purpose of anticipating these storm hazards. Weather conditions like tornados, hurricanes and droughts are a part of storm hazards. Every continent is prone to these calamities, and even though the governments try to avoid substantial structural losses, the damage is still significant.

The formation of a tornado

What are the Types of Storm Hazards?

Tropical Storms/Thunder Storms: 

Typhoons/Thunderstorms are the most ruinous climate marvel. Numerous pieces of the earth experience these storms. Thousands of thunderstorms happen each day for the most part in the tropics. Their number is little over the seas than over the land, inferable from the absence of severe convection above the water surface. Thunderstorms once in a while happen in the polar territories.

These are connected continuously with temperamental air and strong vertical movements that produce cumulonimbus clouds. They get their power from the arrival of inactive warmth of buildup in the rising sticky air.

The typhoons create in those zones of the seas, where the temperature at the ocean surface surpasses 26°C. High-temperature conditions lead to the development of a low weight territory. Therefore, the breezes get sorted out as cyclonic dissemination. A low-pressure region gets heightened into a downturn because of the accessibility of plentiful water fumes.

Later on, pressure diminishes quickly, and depression changes into a violent whirlwind known as a cyclone. The hurricanes happen in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. They cause harm to the farming yields, and sometimes the hurricanes carry required downpours to the dry spell influenced rural zone.

Conditions for the creation of thunderstorms are given beneath:

  1. Strong convection because of the severe warming of the land surface.
  2. Passage of cold, damp air mass over the warm water surface.
  3. The forced rising of restrictively unstable air along the combination zone or the slant of the mountains.
  4. Radiational cooling at upper levels.
  5. A cold shift in weather conditions on a high and warm change in weather conditions at the surface.
Record breaking thunderstorm with a voltage of over 1 billion volts

For the most part, thunderstorms brought about by the surface warming over land are generally regular during a summer evening and an early night. Yet, thunderstorms happen over the sea during the evening since the water surface is hotter than the air up high.

Hail Storms

Hailstorms are the most exceedingly terrible climate hazards. Large hail storms come from the cumulonimbus clouds. Enormous hails are connected continuously with thunderstorms. Hails are commonly limited to a little zone of the storm. Huge hailstones cause incredible harm to life and horticultural harvests. In India, hailstorms happen during the winter season.

Their force rises during the long stretches of March and April when the wheat crop arrives at the reaping stage. In this way, crops worth crores of rupees are harmed each year.

Dust Storms

Residue storms, by and large, happen during the summer season when the air pressure diminishes abruptly. The breeze speed can reach up to 100 km/hr, and now and again, the rate may even surpass 100 km/hr. The residue storms seriously influence trees, and the electric power lines are disrupted.

Ordinarily, dust storms don’t cause precipitation because adequate water fumes are not accessible for the arrangement of the clouds. In any case, if the measure of water fumes increments and gets sufficient for the development of the clouds, thundershowers may happen.

Tornadoes and Water Spouts 

The tornado is, for the most part, connected with cumulonimbus clouds. It broadens descending from the base of the cloud as a chimney. This chimney has both translatory just as a rotatory movement. Along these lines, it tends to contact the land surface.

The pressure inside the chimney falls quickly and might be uncommonly low at the focal point of the stack when contrasted with the bordering barometrical air outside the tornado.

Subsequently, immense power is produced inside the tornado. Any place it contacts the ground, the energy inside the tornado can suck or lift the large objects over the ground surface and break the items going ahead of its way.

The width of the tornado fluctuates from 10 meters to 100 meters or even 1km to 2km. The harm brought about by the tornado is additionally boosted by the active surface breezes related to the storm.

Tornadoes happen in numerous regions of the world. The most extreme number of tornadoes is found in the U.S.A. The word tornado alludes to the most savage storm wherein the speed of the surface breeze can surpass 400 km/hr over a little region. The most extreme breeze speed in a tornado has never been estimated. The vertical rate can exceed 250 km/hr. These tornadoes cause harm to life and property and agrarian structures.

There has been no general hypothesis of tornado development. The significant impact of two different air masses may prompt the creation of a tornado. Instability happens, when a dry, cold (overwhelming) polar air mass pushes the warm, moist (light) air mass upwards. The rising warm, sticky air mass loses temperature at the dry adiabatic slip by rate.

The air mass gets cold and soaked, which prompts buildup. A gigantic measure of idle warmth discharged during an increase keeps the rising air mass warm. This causes the air flows to arrive at more prominent statures prompting low pressure in the focal point of the air segment, which turns into a site of firm breezes.

Subsequently, a cyclonic course alongside strong updraft prompts the development of a pipe formed storm. This lead to cyclonic flow alongside strong updraft prompts the arrangement of a pipe formed storm cloud-related with amazingly uproarious thundering clamour and bizarrely extreme helping.

Water Sprouts 

At the point when a tornado happens on the water surface/surface of the sea, it is called water sprout. At whatever point the stack of the tornado contacts the water surface, it sucks water upwards and once in a while, it might lift little vessels in the seas. In any case, the harm brought about by the water sprout is less when contrasted with the tornado over the land.

Lightning

Lightning is likewise a natural cataclysm, and it is continuously connected with a cumulonimbus cloud. The vertical degree of this cloud may reach out up to 10-16 km stature over the ground surface. Such clouds comprise of positive charge, or even potential distinction is made between the cloud and the earth.

Therefore, a monster shimmer of lightning is produced. In some cases, a lightning blaze may hit any object like a tree or a structure on the ground.

In the United States, lightning represents a more significant number of passings than some other climate hazard. The lightning setbacks, for the most part, happen toward the evening. Lightning can strike the airplane causing substantial harm. It additionally causes a significant measure of property harm. Woodland fire, by and large, happens on account of lightning under dry conditions. Lightning Flash Hitting a Tree and Earth Surface

Blizzards 

Blizzards are another climate hazard that causes overwhelming harm to life and property. The mix of low temperatures and strong breezes and blizzard is called a blizzard. These are commonly found in high scopes where extratropical typhoons are pervasive during the winter season.

Frost 

Frost happens when the air temperature close to the ground surface falls beneath 0°C. Low temperatures, by and large, retard the development of the harvest plants. The cold shift in weather conditions is increasingly harmful during the winter season since it makes a common hazard when the field crops are in their seedling stage.

Be that as it may, wheat yield can withstand frosty temperature; however, the plants are slaughtered if the roots are upset by frost to hurl. Frost events are increasingly regular in the center and high scopes. It happens once in a while in the tropical districts. Nonetheless, it might happen on the high mountains in the tropical areas. Sub-frigid temperatures can diminish the nature of the development yields.

Frost is damaging to the vegetable harvests. Harvests in north-west India experience frost of moderate to extreme force. This way, consistently potato and tomato crops are harmed worth crores of rupees because of low-temperature wounds.

These yields are defenceless to ice damage straight up to the development. The blooming stage is a fundamental period for the more significant part of the field harvests, and young natural product plants endure genuine harm because of low-temperature wounds.

To shield the plants from the frost, there are numerous systems wherein the temperature isn’t permitted to fall beneath frost level:

(I) The temperature of the plant is controlled by controlling the dirt temperature. The dirt temperature can be changed by offering a water system to the yield.

(ii) By covering the plants with glass or plastic spreads. Right now, the temperature of the plants rises.

(iii) The sprinkling water system likewise builds the temperature of the air.

High Temperature

High temperatures are experienced during the summer season in numerous pieces of tropical and sub-tropical locales. Drawn out high-temperature conditions can prompt warmth wave conditions. For the most part, heatwave conditions can happen during the long stretches of April, May and even June.

On the off chance that the highest temperature stays better than average by 6-7°C, moderate heatwave conditions are said to happen. If the most extreme temperature stays better than average by 8°C or progressively, at that point, it might be named as a severe heatwave.

Heatwaves regularly create over Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab territories, which are far away from the seaside regions. Simultaneously, hot and robust north-westerly breezes may cause heatwaves over the seaside zones of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. Be that as it may, heatwave occurrence is uncommon over the landmass south of the scope 13° north on account of the oceanic impact and genuinely damp conditions.

For the most part, heatwave conditions may continue for 4-5 days. Yet, in some cases, they endure for another week. The force of heatwave is seen as the most extreme during the long periods of May and June. Heatwave, for the most part, reaches out from north-west India straight up to Orissa and Andhra coast. Consistently most extreme heatwaves are found in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states.

Numerous territories experience hot breezes on the planet. For the most part, these breezes are produced in those territories which are situated affected by the anticyclonic flow. Their seriousness is additionally upgraded by the shift in weather conditions of hot air from other tropical zones.

These hot breezes are additionally caused when the air mass plummets down the slants. Foehn is one of the hot breezes, which is created by adiabatic warming when the air mass falls on the leeward side of the mountains.

These hot breezes are commonly experienced on the northern side of the Alps mountain in Switzerland. These breezes are relatively hotter and drier than the overall air mass of that territory. These warm and dry breezes can dissolve the snow quickly.

Thus, adequate water gets accessible to the harvests, which are become under rainfed conditions. Then again, the appearance of these hot and dry breezes can build the air temperature out of nowhere, coming about the unfriendly impact on the standing harvests.

References

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