Mineral Security

What is the meaning of Mineral Security? Mineral security refers to adequate availability of quality and affordable mineral resources despite critical situations such as fierce competition in the international market, hurdles in the importation of mineral resources from mineral-rich nations, and poor economy.  The mining industries around the world have grappled with numerous challenges along … Read more


What is a meander? Meanders are sinuously curves in which water streams move among, transporting high quantities of sediments in suspension (1). These streams flow through soft and deep stream beds, carrying mud (lime and clay), sand and, sometimes, gravel.  How is it formed and how does it work? Water streams erode the land in … Read more

Energy Security

What is the meaning of Energy Security? The meaning of “energy security” refers to the capacity of a country for ensuring an adequate, affordable, and continuous supply of energy for consistent and uninterrupted use of energy by domestic users, and military as well as industrial purposes. Energy security further relates to present and future requirements … Read more

Global Systems

In geography it is very common to interrelate everything that happens in our planet earth (even with the universe), from something natural as the formation of a typhoon to human situations like migration, because that’s how we can understand a system. All that we know is the outcome of interconnected systems and therefore processes that … Read more


Nowadays It is very common to hear the word ‘Globalisation’, especially when people talk about technology and how easy is to communicate from anywhere around the world through social media. The truth is that there is more beyond the surface of this concept. What is it then? Have you ever thought of all the processes … Read more

Global commons

Have you ever thought about those parts of the world that doesn’t belong to any nation? If you have, you might know that these are known as the global commons. The High seas, the Atmosphere, Outer space and Antarctica are the four supra-national spaces that all nations have access. Imagine that everyone can use or … Read more